Transit Communications Interface Profiles (TCIP)TransportationReal-Time TransitHardware
American Public Transportation Association (APTA)
| Version: 5.0.1
Cities use TCIP to structure their real-time public transit data
  • License: No information
  • About the Publisher: APTA is a non-profit organization that supports improvements in public transportation throughout the USA. APTA has published several standards for public transportation over the years
  • Updated by Publisher: 2016-03-01
  • Level of Use: City of Montreal and several cities within the USA have adopted TCIP. There is not formal list of all cities that have adopted this standard. As of 2013, vendors are the main users of TCIP
  • Open License: No
  • Transferable to other Jurisdictions: National Transit Institute provides the 'Transit Communications Inteface Profiles (TCIP) Standard Development Program.' This TCIP training provides classes to help ease the adoption of TCIP. APTA also provides the downloadable 'TCIP Implementation, Requirements and Capabilities Editor (TIRCE)'
  • Stakeholder Participation: Technical working groups composed of transit agency staff and representatives from vendors were the ones to develop TCIP (Reed 2013)
  • Consensus-based Governance: APTA allows users of the standard to add comments
  • Extensions: Cities have the availability to modify parts of the standard to meet their needs. For example, the New York City MTA modified TCIP's specifications (Reed 2013)
  • Machine Readable: Data is stored in zipped MS Word document files (.doc), which are not machine readable, but data can be also stored in XML
  • Human Readable: Lots of documentation regarding the standard, including definitions
  • Requires Real-Time Data: As the specification is primarily for real-time public transit data, it requires the data to be real-time
  • Metadata: TCIP data is organized into the following building blocks: Dialog Patterns, Dialogs, Messages, Frames, Elements, File Transfers). The Messages block allows for metadata. Also, there is a metadata field for TCIP artifacts
Added to directory: 2017-08-30
Election Markup Language (EML)ElectionsElection ResultsHardware
OASIS Election and Voter Services Technical Committee
| Version: 7
The standard supports the end to end process of the election system. The intent of the standard is to 'develop a standard for the structured interchange among hardware, software, and service providers who engage in any aspect of providing election or voter services to public or private organizations...' ( This is a much more comprehensive schema than the other election data standards observed in this list. In addition, this standard engages in high level election processes
  • License: OASIS Open 2011
  • About the Publisher: OASIS Election and Voter Services Technical Committee is committed to the technical development, refinement and formalization of election standard documents. *Technical Committee was closed in July of 2015 by the OASIS TC Administrator
  • Updated by Publisher: 2011-10-27
  • Level of Use: Ohio, USA, used the standard in their 2014 elections
  • Open License: Yes
  • Transferable to other Jurisdictions: The standard requires a common terminology and definition of election processes so it can be understood and applied across national boundaries. Standard claims to be multilingual, multinational, flexible, adaptable, and technology agnostic, making it easier to adopt across a wide array of jurisdictions
  • Stakeholder Participation: The standard is managed by members of the OASIS Technical Committee. In order to contribute to the standards development, there is a public mail list that acts as a forum for developers to contribute and exchange ideas and advice about the standard's implementation. An individual must subscribe to comment list to provide feedback.
  • Consensus-based Governance: According to Ron Rivest, EML is a 'consensus-based, publicly available common format that enables the exchange of electronic records between different components in election systems'
  • Extensions: The standard extends so not to change the election process. Implementers of the standard plan on providing a complementary document for a specific election scenario that clarifies security issues raised in the election process
  • Machine Readable: EML is a XML based standard. The structure of the schema consists of vocabulary (the EML core) and individual message schemas
  • Human Readable: EML uses attribute IDs and standard election vocabulary
  • Requires Real-Time Data: Standard requires data from various stages of the election process life cycle
  • Metadata: Standard allows for optional information to be included in the header. Some XML messages require the managing authority and date of issue
Added to directory: 2017-07-09
NIST Election Results Common Data FormatElectionsElection ResultsHardware
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
| Version: 1
The standard establishes a XML schema for the export and import of data from and to election process devices. The standard establishes a comprehensive UML model to map out and define the components of the general election process
  • License: No information
  • About the Publisher: NIST aims to promote standards, measurement science, and technology in a way that will boost society's quality of life and encourage economic competition and innovation
  • Updated by Publisher: 2016-02-01
  • Level of Use: No information
  • Open License: Yes
  • Transferable to other Jurisdictions: No information
  • Stakeholder Participation: No information
  • Consensus-based Governance: The standard hosts an issue tracker on GitHub
  • Extensions: No information
  • Machine Readable: XML - based import/export format for election devices that handles the data. Schema is organized by elements and their attributes of the election process. Sub-elements refer to elements that are nested within other elements. Schema is in XSD format
  • Human Readable: The standard uses object identifiers and links elements within the electoral system. Standard also includes a glossary to ensure compliance and uniformity during implementation
  • Requires Real-Time Data: No information
  • Metadata: No information
Added to directory: 2017-07-09